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FAQ Popular Questions

Do I need to wear glasses?
If you need to ask, are over sixteen and don't drive, the answer is very often no.
Children sometimes need spectacles both to see well and some times to prevent squint and other binocular vision problems.
For adults there are, in my opinion, three main reasons for spectacle wear :
1) Most important- to see; there should be a signifiant sight improvement with spectacles either for distance or near, compared to without.
2) Eye strain- if not wearing causes problems such as head ache then this is reason enough for spectacle wear.
3) Driving and general safety-you may feel your sight is adequate but to be legal to drive, for instance, a certain standard must be reached.
If your answer is not found in the above it may be worth seeking a second opinion.
Bifocals or Varifocals ?
Both these types of lens enable the user to see both distance and near through one pair of glasses.

Bifocals have been around for several hundred years, the original Franklin split bifocal was invented by Benjamin Franklin who created a lens with half a distance lens and half a reading lens.
Bifocals come with reading segments of all shapes and sizes “fixed” onto a distance lens; as the name imply s there are two focuses, distance with a reading addition in a reading segment usually placed in line with the lower lid so that simply by dropping their eyes the wearer is able to read.
The advantage of simple bifocals is that the distance lens is stable and distortion free as is the reading lens.
The main disadvantages are :
Cosmetic - bifocals betray age.
Range- with just two focuses there is often a no-man's land from 40 cm to 3 metres meaning that to see prices in shops , for instance, you either have to step closer and read through the segment or step back and read through the distance.

Like bifocals the distance is at the top of the lens and the reading is at the bottom. The best analogy for how varifocals are created is to imagine a round copper plate at “distance temperature”
then hold a candle underneath the plate towards the edge. This will heat up a circular area to “reading temperature” but will also give a range of different temperatures all over the plate causing waves or distortion in a real lens.
There are many complex designs of varifocal lenses which try to combat the distortion problem and the cost can differ markedly.
In most cases the brain seems to be able to adapt within about 4 weeks even to the most basic varifocal designs – if you give it a chance.

The main advantages of varifocals over bifocals are :
Cosmetic- Nobody has to know , they look just like single vision lenses. This is a really big plus.
Intermediate distances can also be focussed on , all be it through a narrow transition zone between distance and near.
Presbyopia or mid life reading problems.
A child of ten can focus clearly from far distance right up to ten centimetres away, at twenty years this becomes twenty centimetres and so on as the lens in our eyes slowly hardens and changing focus from distance to near becomes more difficult. This change is remarkably constant with age and across all peoples, having always worn spectacles or never hawing worn them seem to have no bearing on presbyopia development.
At around forty five we struggle to see clearly at 50 centimetres and depending on arm length very quickly go from just can see at near to just can't.
It is important to remember that this is a natural ageing change like grey hair and wrinkles and is completely unavoidable.
Often people describe it (wrongly) as becoming long sighted- distance vision is unaffected , it is a refocusing problem only and can also manifest it self as temporary blurring when switching from near to distance at the eyes struggle to readjust.
What is the solution ?
If you don't need distance glasses , probably the simplest answer is to wear reading specs, at least in the short term, when you can see most things at near and just need them occasionally, say for fine print.
Unfortunately as we continue to become greyer we struggle even more with near, so that at sixty any thing within a metre becomes blurred and reading glasses may be on and of like a yo yo. Occasionally our pupils get smaller as we age and this gives a pin hole camera effect enabling some old fogies to still be able to read into their nineties without help.
When you get fed up of peering over the top of your glasses, putting them on the top of your head, misplacing them or that ultimate wardrobe malfunction , wearing a spectacle chain around you neck, you may like to consider varifocals or bifocals.
There's a lot more to your nails than meets the eye. In fact, what you see on the surface has been in the works for a while, growing out from the nail matrix (the living tissue below your cuticle responsible for the healthy growth of your nails) that's deep in your fingers. It's a complicated system, and when your nails start looking not-so-hot, any number of things could be to blame—here are 8 leading contenders.

1. You're low on iron

Concave or depressed nails (like the inside of a spoon) can be caused by low iron levels, or anemia. Iron helps form hemoglobin, a molecule that shuttles red blood cells loaded with fresh oxygen to your nail matrix, explains Ella Toombs, MD, a board-certified dermatologist based in Washington, DC. Without it, you get stunted nail growth.
The fix: If you see depressions in your nails, that's your cue to head to the doc for a blood test.

2. You text and type nonstop

You know that clickety-clack sound your nails make when you're firing off emails and texts? Well, you're damaging more than just the patience of the people around you. "If your nail is making contact with your keyboard or smartphone screen over and over, it could cause it to split, fracture, or fray at the edges," says Toombs.
The fix: File or trim nails so that just a bit of white tip is left (but still below than the fleshy top of your finger). That will make it possible to text and type with just the pad of your finger.

3. You only apply hand lotion in the morning

Time for a dose of reality—you have to reapply hand lotion every time you wash your hands. Water dries your skin out, and if the skin at and below your cuticles is dry, then the underlying nail matrix is, too. That means the nail it forms will be prone to splitting, breaking, and cracking, says Ellen Marmur, MD, associate clinical professor of dermatology at Mount Sinai in New York City.
The fix: Find a fast-absorbing lotion like Essie Spa Manicure Many Many Mani Intensive Hand Lotion ($9; target.com) and apply it throughout the day, paying special attention to the area above your matrix: from the cuticles all the way down to the second knuckle of your finger.

4. You leave polish on for way too long

All nail polishes contain drying ingredients that sap moisture from the nail plate and weaken it, and that drying effect doesn't stop once the polish has hardened, Marmur says. Even five-free nail polishes, which skip the solvent toluene and the plasticizer dibutyl phthalate, along with other potentially irritating ingredients, can still leave nails high and dry (something has to make the polish dry once it's on your nail, right?).

The fix: Toombs recommends taking polish off after five days—when most formulas will start wearing down anyway. Then give nails a few days of downtime before hitting the paint again.
Here are the top 5 ways to get smooth skin.

1. Water

One of the most important things you can do for smooth and glowing skin is drink plenty of water. Your aim should be to drink 8 to 10 glasses of water a day. Water helps the body flush out toxins and waste. However, avoid sugary drinks, alcohol and carbonated drinks. Also try to eat fruits and vegetables that are high in water content. Washing your face at least twice a day with water will also help improve your skin’s health and appearance.

2. Lemon Juice

Lemon juice can be used to cleanse your skin, lighten spots and scars, as well as soften and smooth it. This citrus-rich fruit contains cleansing enzymes that remove dead skin cells, leaving your skin smoother and fresher. With its excellent astringent properties, lemon is a great natural cleanser for people who have oily skin.

To lighten dark spots and acne marks, you can use fresh squeezed lemon juice and apply it to your entire face and neck. Leave it on for 10 minutes and then rinse it off with lukewarm water. You can do this daily or several times a week. For soft, smooth skin, mix lemon juice from half a lemon and one egg white. Apply it to your face. Leave it on for 10 minutes and then rinse with warm water. Repeat once or twice a week.

3. Tomatoes

Fresh tomato is an excellent natural skin toner. It can also help treat pimples and blemishes. To make your skin soft and smooth, puree some fresh tomatoes in a blender or grinder. Apply the tomato paste to your face. Leave it on for 10 minutes and then wash it off with water. Daily use can help shrink enlarged pores and give you smoother, glowing skin. You can also use tomato paste to heal pimples. Apply it to the affected area and leave it on for an hour, then rinse it off.

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